They each had their illusions. Goodrich came from Harvard. Hodges was haunted by the ghosts of family heroes. They were three young men from different worlds, plunged into a white-hot, murderous realm of jungle warfare as it was fought by one Marine platoon in the An Hoa Basin, They had no way of knowing what awaited them. Nothing could have prepared them for the madness to come.
And in the heat and horror of battle they took on new identities, took on one another, and were each reborn in fields of fire. Casting all five men as metaphors for a legion of well-meaning if ill-starred warriors, Timberg probes the fault line between those who fought the war and those who used money, wit, and connections to avoid battle. A riveting tale that illuminates the flip side of the fabled Vietnam generation — those who went. From the devastating counterattack at Unsan to the thirty-four months he spent in captivity-a period of years in which giving up surely meant dying-Col.
Richardson endured many long months of starvation, torture, sleep deprivation, and Chinese attempts at indoctrination, yet maintained defiance under conditions designed to break the mind, body, and spirit of men. Men Against Fire, by S. He startled the military and civilian world in by announcing that, in an average infantry company, no more than one in four soldiers actually fired their weapons while in contact with the enemy. His contention was based on interviews he conducted immediately after combat in both the European and Pacific theaters of World War II.
Every leader must be ready and willing to take charge, to make hard, crucial calls for the good of the team and the mission. Something much more difficult to understand is that, in order to be a good leader, one must also be a good follower. Harry Farr was born in north London in December His life ended while tied to a post, without a blindfold, shot to death by his fellow soldiers at the height of the First World War. In between, he served two years as a regular soldier before the war, fell in love, got married and became a father to baby Gertie, before spending two years on the Western Front with the West Yorkshire Regiment.
Unit Testimony, by Hal Gold. Unit , by Pete Williams.
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From Episode De Re Militari Concerning Military Affairs , written in the 5th century by Vegetius and translated from the original Latin, is a treatise on warfare in the Roman world and is vital reading for any modern student of the subject as it clearly outlines the methods and practices of the type of warfare waged by the Roman Empire at the height of its power. In addition to abolishing serfdom in his domains and promoting religious tolerance, he was an ardent patron of the arts and an accomplished musician. His brilliant theories on strategy, tactics, and discipline are all explained in this vital text.
Fred Harvey. Fred Harvey is an emotional and fascinating wild ride with a man who has experienced more adventures than most of us can even imagine. This Revised Edition having the sky blue cover is expanded with new chapters on his life not included in the earlier book. It also contains many more photos and updates on stories from his earlier memoir. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize, Lewis B. Puller, Jr. Raised in the shadow of his father, Marine General Lewis B.
But when he tripped a booby-trapped howitzer round, triggering an explosion that would cost him his legs, his career as a soldier ended, and the battle to reclaim his life began. From commanding the Horse Marines in Peking to leading the Inchon landing, Puller became a legend in his own time. Now, Davis offers a no-holds-barred biography of this courageous hero—the only marine in history ever to win five Navy Crosses. It was the culmination of a lifelong devotion to the jujutsu of the past, which he reorganized while taking great care to retain its classical traditions.
Historically, martial arts were practiced only by the elite in Japan. Kano, a renowned educator as well as a sportsman, is credited with popularizing the martial arts, and in particular, judo, among people in all levels of society. Rob Jones Journal. Every time a young child announces this decision they are corrected.
The first adult that hears it asks them whether or not they have even tried. Generally, this confrontation will result in the child giving their task another attempt, until their attention span moves on to something else. In the fall of , Taliban insurgents ambushed a patrol of Afghan soldiers and Marine advisors in a mountain village called Ganjigal. Firing from entrenched positions, the enemy was positioned to wipe out one hundred men who were pinned down and were repeatedly refused artillery support. Ordered to remain behind with the vehicles, twenty-one year-old Marine corporal Dakota Meyer disobeyed orders and attacked to rescue his comrades.
Combat, the most intense and dynamic environment imaginable, teaches the toughest leadership lessons, with absolutely everything at stake. Jocko Willink and Leif Babin learned this reality first-hand on the most violent and dangerous battlefield in Iraq. Team Dog. Trident K9 Warriors. By Mike Ritland From Episode Humorous, surprising and informative, Dr. Peterson tells us why skateboarding boys and girls must be left alone, what terrible fate awaits those who criticize too easily, and why you should always pet a cat when you meet one on the street.
In this moving collection of first-person accounts, the men and women of the Canadian Armed Forces take us inside life in the military and share their personal stories of courage, perseverance, and sacrifice. What does it mean to serve? Bestselling author Jody Mitic brings together veterans and active military personnel from across Canada to tell us, in their own words, what it means to answer the call of duty.
At the age of twelve, Dresden-born Maurice de Saxe — entered the Saxon army, beginning a long and successful military career that culminated in his promotion to Marshal of France, where he retained full command of the main army in Flanders directly under Louis XV. Hal Moore on Leadership. Whatever your profession might be, his leadership approach of Competence, Judgment, and Character is more relevant today than ever.
Hal Moore and Joe Galloway. Each year, the Commandant of the U. Marine Corps selects one book that he believes is both relevant and timeless for reading by all Marines. In November , some men of the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry, under the command of Lt. Hal Moore, were dropped by helicopter into a small clearing in the Ia Drang Valley. They were immediately surrounded by 2, North Vietnamese soldiers.
Three days later, only two and a half miles away, a sister battalion was chopped to pieces. Together, these actions at the landing zones X-Ray and Albany constituted one of the most savage and significant battles of the Vietnam War. The Recollections of Benjamin Harris are the classic memoirs of a foot soldier during the Napoleonic Wars, originally published in A book by a veteran Samurai to young warriors who had not tasted battle.
This book, which consists of a hundred songs, was transmitted to Samurai who had not yet fought in battle. In the early s a forward was written by the Zen Priest Takuan Soho. Miyamoto Musashi was the child of an era when Japan was emerging from decades of civil strife. Lured to the great Battle of Sekigahara in by the hope of becoming a samurai-without really knowing what it meant-he regains consciousness after the battle to find himself lying defeated, dazed and wounded among thousands of the dead and dying.
On his way home, he commits a rash act, becomes a fugitive and brings life in his own village to a standstill-until he is captured by a weaponless Zen monk. We all need mentors, particularly when the odds seem stacked against us. To find his own, four-time 1 best-selling author Tim Ferriss tracked down more than eclectic experts to help him, and you, navigate life.
Through short, action-packed profiles, he shares their secrets for success, happiness, meaning, and more. No matter the challenge or opportunity, something in these pages can help. A father and his son walk alone through burned America. Nothing moves in the ravaged landscape save the ash on the wind. It is cold enough to crack stones, and when the snow falls it is gray. The sky is dark. They have nothing; just a pistol to defend themselves against the lawless bands that stalk the road, the clothes they are wearing, a cart of scavenged food—and each other.
Geoffrey Powell, himself a veteran of the Arnhem operation, drew on conversations with many other survivors of the battle to write one of the most dramatic of all accounts of the battle. Thousands of soldiers die every year to defend their country. United States Army Staff Sergeant Travis Mills was sure that he would become another statistic when, during his third tour of duty in Afghanistan, he was caught in an IED blast four days before his twenty-fifth birthday.
Against the odds, he lived, but at a severe cost—Travis became one of only five soldiers from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq to survive a quadruple amputation. In April of , SEAL Lieutenant Tom Norris risked his life in an unprecedented ground rescue of two American airmen who were shot down behind enemy lines in North Vietnam, a feat for which he would be awarded the Medal of Honor—an award that represents the pinnacle of heroism and courage.
Just six months later, Norris was sent on a dangerous special reconnaissance mission that would take his team deep into enemy territory. On that mission, they engaged a vastly superior force. In the running gun battle that ensued, Lieutenant Norris was severely wounded; a bullet entered his left eye and exited the left side of his head. This was the first time Tom and Mike had been on a combat mission together. An account of the Falklands War told by an ordinary soldier. In retelling what happened to him and his fellow paratroopers during the bloody battle for Mount Longdon, Bramley exposes the effects that the prospect of dying and the reality of killing have on a common soldier — from those who desert to those who, like himself, obey orders, face death and do their share of killing and those who become brutalized and kill and maim the enemy unnecessarily.
This classic of military history tells the story of the fall of St. Although St. The shocking account of how a unit of average middle-aged Germans became the cold-blooded murderers of tens of thousands of Jews. The original British Army anthology on leadership, used to train generations of officers, brings together the collected wisdom of great military leaders, tacticians and historians with the authentic voices of unknown soldiers.
Complete with a new introduction by Robin Matthews, who commanded the Light Dragoons in Iraq, on the background to Serve to Lead and its relevance to his own career and experiences from Sierra Leone to Afghanistan. Through the book Musashi defends his thesis: a man who conquers himself is ready to take it on on the world, should need arise. Between and Frankl labored in four different camps, including Auschwitz, while his parents, brother, and pregnant wife perished.
Based on his own experience and the experiences of others he treated later in his practice, Frankl argues that we cannot avoid suffering but we can choose how to cope with it, find meaning in it, and move forward with renewed purpose. Charlie Plumb. Harley Flanagan provides a fascinating memoir: a child prodigy and family friend of Andy Warhol and Allen Ginsberg, at a young age he became close to many stars of the early punk rock scene like Joe Strummer of The Clash and was taught to play bass by members of the famed black punk band Bad Brains.
His cheerful, heroic energy and indierence to personal danger exerted a profound eect upon the morale of the men of his regiment and inspired them to many deeds of gallantry and supreme devotion to duty. I consider by all odds the best thing I ever did was trying to enlist in the Army, Murray later recalled. The only really unpleasant feature was my inability to enter the service in the regular way.
I tried every possible way of getting a Chaplaincy, and finally when I succeeded, the armistice intervened. I lost out by one week. Colgan and Neil J. Herman G. Historian U. He is a graduate of West Point and retired from the Army in He holds a Ph. Johnson is married to the former Elyse Howard and has two children. Among this select group is the intrepid Julius Babst. While briefly at tached to the 30th Infantry Regiment of the 3d Division, Babst earned the Silver Star on June 15, for car ing for the wounded and comforting the dying under heavy shell fire.
He died in Babst continued his military career after World War I, rising to the rank of colonel prior to his death in from a heart attack while serving as the command Chaplain, 9th Service Command, at Fort Douglas, Utah. Lawrence E. Deery, Chaplain 1st Lt. Cormac A. Assigned to the 1st Infantry Divisions 16th Infantry Regiment, Deery earned his first Silver Star in Algeria on November 9, , D-day of Operation TORCH: Despite heavy enemy machine gun and small arms fire, Chaplain Deery pro ceeded to the front lines and returned with two wounded Soldiers, aer crossing sev eral fields covered by heavy enemy fire.
Later, Chaplain Deery, on his own initiative and with unsurpassed bravery, proceeded through enemy lines and succeeded in carrying water to the men of the 3d Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment. Chaplain Deerys courage and hero ism, displayed in the face of enemy fire, were an inspiring example to the oicers and men of this battalion. Although general orders published by the 1st Infantry Division confirm his receipt of the two subsequent awards, all that is known is that he received them for gallantry in action in connection that conflict,18 but that is clearly not the caseat least not in terms of awards for valor.
The Way AheadWhile this article and the accompanying table and list are steps in the right direction, they are not the final wordnot even for the list of DSC re cipients. Although searching for the word Chaplain in rank designations and award citations has been use ful, there are many Chaplains whose status as such is not noted in online databasesthis is particularly the case with a number of incomplete entries in the Hall of Valor database from Military Times. This omission of Chaplain Corps status undoubtedly occurred for an unknown number of decorated Chaplain Assistants, since the enlisted members of the corps did not have an identifiable MOS before the s.
A circular published by the Chief of Chaplains in , notes that Chaplains earned Silver Stars in World War II, yet as of now only 52 recipients from that conflict have been positively identified. If anyone has information that would add to or correct the information 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21NOTES in this article, in particular anyone knowing of a Chaplain who earned the Silver Star during World War II or the Vietnam War whose name is not on the accompanying list, please contact me at mark.
Robert P. Ottomar H. Tietjen Chaplain Capt. John B. Tye Chaplain Capt. Marvin E. Vaughn Chaplain Capt. John J. Henry Wall Chaplain 1st.
Australian Army during World War II
Robert B. Wylie Chaplain Clair F. Bartley Chaplain Corbin L. Clanton Chaplain Donald L. Crowley Chaplain Capt. Kevin A. Devine Chaplain Joseph E. Hoard Chaplain Henry C. Hilliard, Jr. Chaplain Capt. John P. McCullagh Chaplain Capt. Peck Chaplain Michael J. Harvey Shaer Chaplain Capt.
Conrad N. Walker Chaplain Capt. Joseph G. Esser Chaplain August F. Gearhard Chaplain Clarence J. Arlin M. Halvorsen Chaplain Capt. David C. Hamm Chaplain 1st. Herman L. Heide Chaplain Capt. Elmer W. Heindl Chaplain Capt. Albert J. Homan Chaplain Capt. Stephen W. Kane Chaplain Capt. Thaddeus J. Koszarek Chaplain Capt. Delbert A. Kenneth C. McDonnell Chaplain Capt. Thomas E. Raphael H. Miller, Jr. Monaghan Chaplain Capt. Donald J. Murphy Chaplain Fintan A. Murphy Chaplain 1st. OConnor Chaplain Miles F. Quinn Chaplain John W. Joseph C. Sharp Chaplain Capt. Edgar H.
Stohler Chaplain Capt. William C. Burgh Chaplain 1st. George R. Carpentier Chaplain 1st. Ora J. Cohee Chaplain 1st. Charles C. Conaty Chaplain John B. Francis Patrick Duy Chaplain Maj. Patrick Richard Dunigan Chaplain 1st. Thomas J. Dunne Chaplain 1st. William J. Farrell Chaplain 1st. August F.
Gearhard Chaplain 1st. James Matthew Hanley Chaplain 1st. Francis A. Kelly Chaplain Capt. James Norman King Chaplain 1st. John Carroll Moore Chaplain 1st. Coleman E. William E. Patrick Chaplain 1st. Charles D. Winfred E. Robb Chaplain 1st. George W. Sadler Chaplain 1st. Aristeo V. Simoni Chaplain 1st. Thomas G. Speers Cpl. Strother Chaplain Capt. Swan Chaplain 1st. Royal K. Tucker Chaplain 1st. John C.
Ward Chaplain 1st. Earl H. WeedSilver StarChaplain 1st. Beard Chaplain James M. Blaise Chaplain Albert W. Braun Chaplain Duncan H. Danker Chaplain William F. Davitt Chaplain John B. Farrell Chaplain Cliord P. Futer Chaplain Lee N. Hainer Chaplain 1st. James J. Hallihan, Sr. Chaplain William A. Hayes Chaplain Jacob D. Hockman Chaplain Russel T. Hume Chaplain John W.
Ischy Chaplain 1st. Benjamin R. Lacy, Jr. Chaplain Carl F. Lauer Chaplain Patrick J. Lydon Chaplain George H. McClelland Chaplain 1st. John L. Orville A. Petty Chaplain Dryden L. Phelps Chaplain 1st. Richard R.
Minnesota Secretary Of State - All Veteran Tributes
Rankin Chaplain Edward F. Rice Chaplain George F. Sisson Chaplain Theodore S. Sullens Chaplain James B. Turner Chaplain James P. Sherry Chaplain Daniel S. Smar Chaplain Joseph H. Sutherland Chaplain Barrett P. Tyler Chaplain Earl D. Weed Chaplain Roberts Williams Chaplain 1st. Joseph L. Wolfe Chaplain Ernest W. Wood Chaplain Thurman G. Ralph W. Brown Chaplain Capt. Aquinas T. Curran Chaplain 1st. Eugene Lewis Daniel Chaplain 1st.
Neil J. George L. Alexander D. Edward H. Harrison Chaplain Capt. Benedict A. Henderson Chaplain 1st. Homan Chaplain 1st. Joseph R. Lacy Chaplain 1st. John S. Maloney Chaplain Capt. Tildon S. McGee Chaplain 1st. Clark V. Francis L. Sampson Chaplain 1st. Fred E. Andrews Chaplain Thomas J. Barrett Chaplain Capt. Joseph D. Barry Chaplain Lt. Borneman with Oak Leaf Cluster Chaplain 1st. Cosmas J. Boyle Chaplain Capt.
John G. Richard E. Cliord C. Cartee Chaplain Capt. Johan B. Dahlen Chaplain 1st. Eugene Lewis Daniel Chaplain Capt.
Who Takes Care of the Chaplain? By Chaplain Maj. James F. Fisher, Jr. Ask any command team what a Chaplain does and a myriad of answers surface. Paramount among what Chaplains do is give care; pastoral nurture is the common denominator. The Chaplain is a first-responder, taking on the tasks of triaging and facilitation. Such Chaplain opportunities inevitably impact the one giving care.
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Accordingly, any discussion of caring for caregivers must include Chaplains. This tending demands a multi-touch approach from those within the concentric circles of the Chaplains life and influence. Chaplains must allow others to assist in honest evaluation, proper motivation, and healthy integration.
It is diicult to be vulnerable, but the Giver of giedness is worthy of ones very best. Isolation is a choice that only breeds loneliness, self-centeredness, and inevitable heartache. The corollary must not be missed taking care of Chaplains is taking care of Soldiers and Families. Recognizing the Need for CareBeyond the professional roles and responsibilities of a Chap lain exists a person. The being of the person precedes the doing of ministry. The professional is buoyed by the per sonal. Pastoral identity is substantively anchored within the soul, not simply adorned with vestments.
Further, the Army Values flow internally to the external, not vice versa. They must be embraced by the heart, engaged by the head, and exemplified through the hands in service to others. Focusing only on the doing with a disregard for the being inevitably leads to personal bankruptcy, negat ing quality ministerial withdrawals. How many have fallen because the doing was not fortified by the being? The systemic issue is identifying when care is needed. To do so, one must recognize maladies or disease among Chaplains and do so through a holistic lens.
Compassion fatigue, spiritual insensitivity and physical exhaustion are generally recognized by others, yet there are other innumerable manifestations of healthy ministry inhibitors. Understanding wellness is beneficial to identifying those in need and providing paths to healing.
Defining WellnessThe issue of wellness has taken center-stage in the culture, becoming a part of common vocabulary. While definitions for wellness will vary across the spectrum, it is a term that gathers many facets of the human experience in a holistic approach of striving to maintain balance between the physical and the spiritual. The term is credited to Halbert L. Dunn, M. Dunn, chief of the National Oice of Vital Statis tics , viewed wellness as a lifestyle approach for pursuing elevated states of physical and psychological well-being, underscoring wellness as a disciplined commit ment to personal mastery that is also described as multidimensional, centered on personal responsibility and environmental awareness.
Theologian and pastoral ministry professor William Willimon emphasizes this symbiotic reality:4 Many times, emotional or relational problems have their roots in the neglect of the physical body. A host of studies show that the physical activity can greatly reduce levels of stress. Gener ally speaking, the more cerebral the work, the more we need to nurture our bodies.
We are not all brains, not disembodied souls. We are people, creatures, animals who are psychosomatic in all we do. We forget our physicality to our own peril. Any eort of discipline will require a plan and exertion to work out. The disciplines in the physical realm include areas such as nutrition, rest, exercise, etc.
Comparatively, spirit ual disciplines include prayer, reading, fasting, solitude, etc. Embracing such disciplines is a means to holis tic wellness. Is there a similar manifestation with spiritual wellness? Physician Harold Paul Adolph underscores the connection between the physical and the spiritual in his book Holyistic Attitudes:7 Despite our collective preoccupation with liing weights, playing tennis, and swimming into oblivion, it seems that many of us have failed to recognize one fundamental truth: to experience true physical wellness, we cannot concentrate solely on exercise and diets.
We must develop our spiritual health, as well. The fact is, a direct relationship ex ists between the health of our spirits and the well-being of our bodies. Aer nearly thirty years as a practicing physician and surgeon, Ive found that people who are experiencing fellowship with God-whose spiritual lives are grounded in Him-can enjoy a significantly improved degree of physical health.
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Connecting Physical Wellness and Spiritual WellnessNoted author Dallas Willard address es wellness, by discussing the connection between physical wellness and spiritual wellness. Without the physical capability, the spir itual is an impossibility. Conversely, without the spiritual reality, there is no physical vitality. The spiritual is inside-out; the physical is outside-in. While varied, there are disciplines which must be engaged, providing a means toward a desired state or destination. The etymology of the word discipline reveals connected words like gym and gym-Measuring WellnessSpiritual and physical interconnectiv ity raises the means of assessment.
Physical wellness is commonly evaluated by measuring height, check ing body weight, monitoring blood pressure, and a host of laboratory tests. The measurement of spiritual wellness is obviously not as common, nor as simple. However, there may be some common ground approaches: Self-search. A salient element of leadership is leading self.
Marital Monitoring. A spouse pro vides insight like no one else. As a partner in the many seasons of life, a ministers in the hospital, brigade, etc, can provide encouragement andexhortation. Pastoral Peers. Chaplains know others beyond their immediate context in similar ministry settings and vocational paths. Such a commonality can provide a sense of shared commitment and a safe place to oerobservations. Discipling Directors. Connecting with mentorship via spiritual guides, per sonal coaching, etc. Investigative Instruments. Faith groups and various ministry-related organizations oer statistical analysis of self-reported spiritual wellness.
My Own ResearchMy Ph. As well, each of the functions has spiritual fitness cor ollaries as seen in the table below:8 spouse knows context and the clear est means of communication. Communal Camaraderie. Chaplains serve in various communities. Fellow MultidimensionalChaplain Capt. Demetrius Walton navigates the confidence climb obstacle of a confidence course at Fort Dix, N. The confidence course is meant to build camaraderie between and confidence within Soldiers.
The course is also very physically challenging making safety extremely important. There is no relationship between the corporate and the physical wellness disciplines of exercise andnutrition. An emphasis upon the selected disciplines of physical wellness and spiritual wellness can increase holistic wellness among Chaplains. A commitment to spiritual disciplines provides the pastor with healthy resources in addressing ministerialstressors. Exhorting Chaplaincy WellnessThose who do not connect the physical and the spiritual may short-circuit long-term eectiveness in ministry by neglecting the temple and inner sanctum.
Lest one forget, the reality of leadership is that people may ac tually follow and emulate. Examples are set, whether intentionally or not. Influential Chaplains model service to others and to self. Attention to personal maintenance may extend longevity in the privileged position of caring for others. As Chaplains perpetually strive to be members of the holistic care giving team, they must embrace the reality of regularly receiving care.
Nourishment of all areas within the Chaplains life is necessary for true influence. Balance Much of this article is taken from the authors Ph. Harold Paul Adolph. Ibid, I created a survey for the selected spiritual disciplines, based on Richard Fosters, The Celebration of Discipline. He and his wife Tracy have been married for 29 years and have threechildren.
Embracing changes today will produce healthier Chaplains tomorrow. There is no relationship between the inward disciplines and the phys ical wellness discipline of exercise. There is no relationship between the outward disciplines and the physical wellness discipline of sub stance use. There is a relationship between the corporate disciplines confession, worship, guidance, and celebration and the physical wellWellness among Southern Baptist Pastors. The purpose of this re search was to explore the relationship between selected disciplines of physical wellness and spiritual wellness among Southern Baptist pas tors.
This was accomplished via two mailed surveys: 1 self-reporting on spiritual disciplines and 2 selfreporting on physical disciplines. Abdullah HulwePhoto by Sgt 1st Class Jonathan WattersNOTES and priority demand fervent recall: to be a leader, one must first be led; to be a teacher, one must first be a student; to be a shepherd, one must first be a sheep.
Evaluating the totality of ones own wellness will lead to personal adjustments and may aect the same quality change in those who are led. If a Chaplains wellness is a predic tor of personal peace and ministe rial longevity, it must be engaged by family, friends, parishioners and supervisors. The opportunities are limitless, the time is present, and the impact is more than generational it is simplyeternal. Army Chaplains gathered together on the deck of the sinking U. In the aermath of a torpedo attack from a German submarine and seemingly oblivious to the chaos unfolding around them, the fourChaplains George Fox, Alexander Goode, Clark Poling, and John Washingtoninspired their fellow passengers through their calm demeanors and encouraging words.
When eventually the supply of available life preservers became exhausted, the Chaplains all gave their preservers to Soldiers who had none. The ship slipped beneath the waves a few moments later; the last time anyone saw the Chaplains, they were standing with linked arms and praying with other passengers who could not escape. Nearly seven hundred men lost their lives during the sinking, and the four Chaplains were among those who perished. The story is indeed familiarcertainly to most members of the U.
Army Chaplain Corps, but also to many other Americans. Through the years, the saga of what came to be known as The Four Chap lains has been commemorated in many ways. In , the Army awarded the Chaplains the Distinguished Service Cross, Americas second highest award for wartime heroism. The U. Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp in their honor. Two dierent non-profit organizations work to perpetuate Somewhat missing from most accounts detailing the heroism of the Four Chaplains is the context in which their sacrifice took place, other than mentioning that a German submarine attacked and sank Dorchester, bound for Greenland, on the morning of Feb.
One of the most extensive holdings of documents pertaining to the Four Chaplains resides in the archives of the U. Even this collection is long on commemoration and short on context. It is not my intention to add to this list another commemoration of the sacrifice of the Four Chaplains. Instead, I want to examine these events from a broader point of view and explore some of the contextual aspects of the incident: Why was Dorchester heading for Greenland?
How did a German U-boat slip through the screen of protective escort ships to deliver Dorchester a fatal blow? The transport was part of a multi-ship convoy, but why did it take so long for rescue ships to arrive on the scene, which resulted in the majority of potential survivors freezing to death in the icy waters of the Labrador Sea? And why was an interdenominational team of four Chaplains on board Dorchester in the first place?
First, a brief look at the big picture. By the winter of , American troops moving across the Atlantic were bound for one of four destinations: the British Isles, Iceland, North Africa, and Greenland. All did so in relative safety, even though German submarines commonly known as U-boats, short for Unterseeboot sank some 3, Allied merchant ships during World War II.
This is certainly an impressive number, but only a handful of U-boat victims were ships such as Dorchester, a pas senger liner that primarily transported people instead of cargo. Troopships, as they were called, were the most heavily guarded vessels plying the Atlantic. Shortly aer Americas entry into the war, the U. Navy decided that troopships would have priority over other vessels when it came to allocating scarce naval escort ships. The Navys reasoning was that shiploads of cargo were easier to replace than large contingents of trained Soldiers.
The Four Chaplains were nominated for the Medal of Honor, but the Army disap proved the bestowing of Americas highest award for valor since the Chaplains heroic act did not technically take place under fire. Congress later passed legislation, in , that authorized a special Four Chaplains Medal to honor the sacrifice of Fox, Goode, Poling, and Washington, a unique award that has not been bestowed on anyone since.
Fox Alexander D. Goode John P. Washington Clark V. Polling PAGE 14 26 27 valuable troop carriers, thus providing another layer of protection in addition to the eorts of naval escorts. Many of the Soldiers bound for Great Britain had the easiest transit of all. Fast luxury liners of the pre-war era were converted into troopships for wartime service.
These ships usually sailed alone and without escort; their sus tained speeds were so much faster than even the fastest U-boat that German submarines posed little threat. Just three large passenger linersthe Queen Elizabeth, Queen Mary, and Aquitaniatransported to Britain an astonishing total of more than two million American and Canadian Soldiers during the war. Iceland played an important role in the Battle of the Atlantic, serving as both a staging area for Arctic convoys bound for Soviet ports, and as a base for ships and aircra patrolling the North Atlantic shipping lanes.
Marines to Iceland during June The four troopships transporting the Marines had an escort of two battle ships, a pair of light cruisers, and thirteen destroyers. Ships bound for Iceland throughout the war did so as part of large convoys heading to Britain; when the convoy arrived at a point due south of Iceland, ships bound for that island broke o from the main group for a sprint to their destination, escorted by naval ships based out ofReykjavk.
Operation TORCH, the invasion of North Africa in November , included a transatlantic convoy of troopships whose escort included four aircra carriers, three bat tleships, a number of cruisers, and nearly 40 destroyers. Other convoys of troopships bound for the Mediterranean enjoyed similarly heavy escorts throughout the war. If there was ever a place that could be called a forgotten back water of the Battle of the Atlantic, Greenland was it. The Danish colony did not play a prominent role in World War II, but the vast island was critical for a number of reasons: it was one of the worlds richest sources of the rare mineral cyrolite, which played a key role in the manufacture of aluminum a metal the wartime American aircra industry consumed in massive quantities ; Greenland was home to two American airbases near Narsarssuak, vital refueling stops for aircra self-deploying from America to Britain; and finally, weather stations in Greenland provided key information to meteorologists in Britain, who in turn were able to provide accurate forecasts to military planners.
There had been an American military presence in Greenland since the summer of Numbering anywhere between 1, and 2, personnel at any given time, there were no military Chaplains stationed there through With a routine rotation of Greenland-based personnel scheduled for February, oicials at the New York Port of Embarkation were instructed to assign four Chaplains to the manifest of the troopship Dorchester. There were a number of Chaplains designated for overseas assignment then marking time at Camp Miles Standish near Boston.
The four had all volunteered for deployment, and in their own ways were looking forward to the challenges of service in a war zonebut none of them were overly thrilled about being assigned to an outof-the-way place like Greenland. Dorchester slipped its mooring and headed into the crowded waters of the harbor of New York City on Jan. It joined a convoy of 64 other ships and was soon heading northeastward along Americas eastern seaboard. When dawn broke four days later, troops on Dorches ter noticed that they had parted ways with the large convoy during the night. The bulk of the convoy had headed out into the Atlantic, bound for Iceland and England.
Just two other ships remained with Dorchester, the small Norwegian-flagged steam freighters Lutz and Biscaya. With a Royal Navy corvette as escort, the runt convoy arrived at the harbor of St. Johns, Newfoundland, on Jan. Johns was the staging point for all Greenland-bound convoys, it being the closest North American port to the American airbases near Narsarssuak. The troops on Dorchester spent the night ashore as the ship took on fuel.
The troopship departed St. Johns the next day, again accompanied by Lutz and Biscaya, the three now oicially designated ConvoySG Among its many taskings, the Coast Guard was responsible for the waters in and around Greenland. Being experts at Arctic navigation and maneuvering through ice, Coast Guardsmen were much better suited to escort convoys to Greenland than were their U.
Navy counterparts. Johns to Narsarssuak, the ships of SG arranged themselves with Dorchester in the middle standard practice for a convoy containing a troop ship , with Lutz and Biscaya flanking her on either side at a distance of yards. The heavy, foot USCGC Tampa, the largest of the three escorts and the vessel in overall command, was ahead of her three charges, about 3, yards in front of Dorchester. The smaller cutters Comanche and Escanaba, foot cra that had served as icebreakers on the Great Lakes during more peace ful times, protected each flank: Comanche about 5, yards from Lutz on Dorchesters port side, and Escanaba a similar distance from Biscaya to starboard.
With this arrangement, Dorchester had good protection to its front and both flanksbut not to the rear. Exacerbating the situation was a severe winter storm that kicked up shortly aer SG departed St. The small cutters out on the flanks could make barely six knots headway through the rough seas, and the entire convoy had to slow down. SG was thus a small, slow, vulnerable convoy that contained a troopship, the most valuable type of American vessel afloat.
The desolate Labrador Sea between Newfoundland and Greenland was an area that was not worth PAGE 15 28 29 a U-boat captains eort; there were just not enough ships plying those waters to make patrolling there worthwhile. During the entire course of the war U-boats sank only seven Allied vessels north of the Island of Newfoundland6, and thus far there had been no attacks in the open waters of the Labrador Sea southwest of Greenland. Except in this case, the action unfortunately came to Dorchester. A misunderstanding caused a U-boat to cross paths with SG On Feb.
An American Liberty Ship and two British oil tankers were sunk. A U-boat picked up a survivor in the aermath of the attack, the chief engineer from one of the tankers. He carelessly revealed to his captors that a slow convoy was scheduled to follow in the wake of Halifax , the theory being that the first convoy would clear out all threatening U-boats and thus enable the slower ships to proceedunmolested. At about this same time a lone Type VIIc U-boat, U under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Karl-Jrgen Wchter, was stationed on the far western flank of another wolf pack that was stalking the U-boat hunting grounds between Greenland and Iceland.
Wchter re ported distant sound contact with a slow convoy, and Uboat fleet headquarters in Paris Befehlshaber der Unter seeboote, or BdU assumed Wchters convoy was the one it expected to follow Halifax Wchter was ordered to close with and shadow the convoy while reinforcements, a total of 13 additional boats, started to head his way. But Wchter had not detected a big convoy out of Halifax bound for Europehe had stumbled across Dorchesters diminutive SG The U-boat captain later sent another message, correctly stating that his prey was apparently a local convoy heading to Greenland that consisted of only about a half-dozen vessels.
BdU reduced the reinforcing boats to four while instructing Wchter to continue to stalk the convoy. Captain Joseph Greenspun on Tampa signaled to the convoy a warning of Submarine in the vicinity, Tampa having detected something, most likely a U-boat, on its sonar. Tampa dropped depth charges periodically throughout the aernoon and into the evening, hoping to discourage the approach of any U-boats in the vicinity. The merchant ships and Dorchester made what preparations they could, above all else hoping their luck would continue to hold.
A heavy fog blanketed the rough seas as night fell on Feb. Sometime that evening, Oberleutnant Wchter decided that he had to strike sooner rather than later, even though his reinforcing U-boats had not yet arrived; Wchter knew the Allied escorts were alert to his pres ence, for his boats sound-detecting equipment had heard the explosions from Tampas depth-charges.
With the seas becoming calmer and the convoy beginning to pick up speed, U would have to surface soon and close to within firing range or risk losing the convoy due to the U-boats extremely slow submerged speed. Wchter could discern two or three vessels through breaks in the fog, but he wasnt sure of their types.
Obviously, though, one was larger than the others. That was his target. At a distance of 1, yards, the U-boat captain fired his four forward torpedo tubes. He quickly spun his boat around and fired the single stern tube as well. With his five Aals eels in the water, U submerged to await the outcome. U had approached SG from the right rear star board quarter in naval parlance. He thus obtained a clear shot on Dorchester along the only vulnerable ap proach in the convoys formation.
Fortune also smiled on Wchter that night in that the Coast Guard cutter responsible for security on the starboard side of the convoy, Escanaba, was the only escort not equipped with radar if the cutter had been so equipped, U would have been detected as soon as it had surfaced. Dark ness, fog, lack of technology, and luck combined to seal Dorchestersfate. Her fate was sealed at 55 minutes past midnight. One, possibly two, torpedoes exploded directly under Dorches ters stern, wrecking the engine room, killing scores of passengers and crewmen, and causing the ship to imme diately lose power.
Although everyone on board Dorches ter knew instantly they had been hit, none of the other ships in SG observed or heard the torpedo strike. Most likely, U had fired torpedoes equipped with magnetic pistols fuses. These were designed to explode when they encountered a target ships magnetic field under neath the vessel. The explosion was much greater since the water contained its force as opposed to a contact pis tol, which exploded by impacting the side of a vessel and thus had much of its force dissipated into the air , and the sound of the subsurface explo sion was somewhat muled.
With no visible or audible cues of the attack, the other ships in the convoy did not immediately dis cern that Dorchester had been hit. The remaining ships of SG sailed on. Dorchester came to a fast stop. The loss of power meant the stricken ship could not send out a dis tress call, and in the ensuing panic none of the crewmen thought to use visual signals for help.
A few precious minutes ticked by before lookouts on other vessels noticed that something was amiss. Once the escorts had figured out that Dorchester was in trouble, Captain Greenspun ordered Comanche and Escanaba to hunt for the U-boat. Greenspuns decision has caused some controversy through the years, for by giving priority to oensive action instead of search and rescue, the likelihood of survival for anyone on Dorches ter, who ended up in the degree water, decreased exponentially.
Although escort commanders were allowed to use discretion is this type of situation, the prevailing thought was to prevent additional ships from being hit instead of immediately being concerned with a vessel that was already in peril. Greenspun probably also assumed that most of Dorchesters survivors would be in lifeboats, not floating in the water. That assumption was wrong, even though Dorchester had more than enough lifeboats and ras to accommodate everyone on board.
The stricken vessel began to severely list to starboard as it took on water, which prevented the use of lifeboats made fast on that side of the ship. As for the port-mounted boats, some were damaged in the explosion and others were stuck in a thick coating of ice. This, plus a combination of panic and lack of training in lifeboat drills, resulted in most of the available boats remaining unused.
Some of the cra that were safely launched quickly became overcrowded and either cap sized or swamped in the rough seas. And there was just not much time. Dorchester went down a scant 25 minutes aer being hit. Content with his kill and not wanting to push his luck, Wchter had no intention of tangling with escort ships.
Comanche later joined in the rescue eort while Tampa continued on to Greenland with the remaining two ships of the convoy. Between the two cutters, men from Dorchester were savedmostly those who had managed to get aboard a seaworthy lifeboat or ra, although rescue swimmers from Escanaba also managed to save a number of survivors floating in the water. Hundreds of other bodies were never recovered, they having gone down with the ship. When searching for an inspirational example of Chaplains at war, look no further: in the storied history of the U.
Army Chaplain Corps, the Four Chaplains stand out as exemplars of selflessness and devotion to the needs of others. Their courage has been equaled by few, exceeded by none. Understanding the context in which the Four Chaplains sacrifice took place makes their actions all the more noteworthy. Dorchester met her demise only through the convergence of a series of extremely unlikely events: the storm causing the convoy to slow, the chance detec tion and misidentification of the convoy, Escanabas lack of radar.
This convergence resulted in Dorchester being probably the most vulnerable American troopship ever to venture away from American shores during World War II. But as mentioned earlier, it was extremely rare for a U-boat to sink an American troop transport. On that very short list of U. With the clarity of hindsight, it is safe to say that service on that doomed vessel was one of the most critical duty assignments any Chap lain received during the Second World War. On August , U and U attacked convoy SG-6 at the north end of the narrow Belle Isle Straight the waters between the island of Newfoundland and mainland Canada , sinking the oiler Arlyn and the transport Chatham fortunately there were only 14 deaths among the on board the latter vessel.
Data on all sinkings comes from the exhaustive database of Allied vessels sunk by U-boats located at www. Dan Kurzmans statements in No Greater Glory that Americans serving in Greenland were only those lucky enough to survive the U-Boat attacks on troop transports taking them there p. Actually, the threat to Greenland-bound convoys was virtually nonexistent compared to what convoys in other areas of the Atlantic faced. The attack on convoy SG-6 mentioned in the previous note was the sole attack on Greenland-bound ships prior to the attack on Dorchester, and Dorchester was the only other Greenland-bound ship that was sunk during the war.
Maximum speed of a submerged Type VIIc U-boat, running on battery power for propulsion, was about seven knots; on the surface, where it could use its diesel engines, it could make almost eighteen knots. Kurzman, No Greater Glory, p. The luck of U ran out on 30 March 30 , when British destroyers sank it in Mediterranean waters north of Sicily. Morrison, The Battle of the Atlantic, pp. The Escanaba also did not survive the war. On 10 June , the cutter struck a mine and was lost will all hands save two; see Dr.
Robert M. Browning, Jr. Mallory, which sank near Iceland on 7 Februaryjust a few days after the loss of Dorchester.
Ironically, Mallory and Dorchester were both mem bers of the ship convoy that departed New York on 23 January. Five Chaplains were on board Mallory, and all were among the that week the deadliest in the history of the U. The Germans also sank a few American troopships during the course of the war using surface vessels and aircraft, and some others went down as a result of collisions with other vessels, but the loss of life on all these other ships was never greater than what had occurred on Dorchester.
The panic that gripped passengers and crew as Dorchester went under contributed to the heavy loss of life, and it was at that moment that the Chaplains discerned their duty more clearly than prob ably anyone else on board: come what may, it was time to do whatever possible for the aid, comfort, and spiritual and emotional needs of their fellow Soldiers. The Chap lains remained on Dorchester not due to panic or fear, but rather because they made the conscious decision to do so, attempting to calm, inspire, and assist otherseven though by doing so they were knowingly sealing their fates.
The reflections are set in the context of divine revelation in the Old Testament Book of Ecclesiastes. Nothing New Under the Sun: The Unchanging ChaplaincyQoheletthe Preacher of Ecclesias tesbegan his theological reflections with a famously somber note that set his insights in a larger, cosmic and historic perspective: What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done, and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, See, this is new? It has been already in the ages before us Ecclesiastes , 10 ESV. The reader may be indeed, it appears to be the authors intent inclined to agree with the commentary by Charles Bridges, The whole treatise has a sad character about ita mournful commentarymainly a book of confession.
The brighter exercis es of Evangelical repentance are but dimly exhibited. That said with tongue-in-cheek, there are unchanging issues and responses that Chaplains face and will face in the United States military. There are also emerging signstrends, if you willthat could be pointing to a future already here.
This paper will reflect on a few of these certainties and signs that could impact future Chaplain ministry in the U. Army and by inference, in the U. Armed teleological understanding of history has certain predictable factors. His tory, for the preacher in Ecclesiastes, is a moving circle. This revelation car ries both comforting familiar and disturbing implications for the Armed Forces Chaplaincy.
Soldiers have needsIt may be an exercise in stating the obvious, but the most pressing unchanging feature of Chaplain minis try in the United States Army will be the needs of Soldiers and by way of application, Airmen, Guardsmen, Marines, Merchant Mariners, and Sailors. Young recruits in basic training will still miss parents, spouses, and loved ones. Deploying noncommis sioned oicers and company grade oicers will still wonder about the meaning of true leadership as their unit deploys into a theater of operation.
Families will still grieve over inevitable losses in our Army family. Retirees will always seek to make sense of the past and try to navigate a pathway into a future that came faster than they expected. Gods grace resounds in our lives like a staccato. Only by retaining the seemingly disconnected notes comes the ability to grasp the theme. Army ReserveNurture the Livingby Sgt. Steve Carter, a former Chaplain Assistant. PAGE 18 themes, there is meaning, and, in meaning, there is hope.
Chaplains are Spiritual PhysiciansMedical Service Oicers are not trained for spiritual work of sort ing through the boxes of broken dreams and unfulfilled longings of human beings. Judge Advocate General oicers fulfill many necessary functions in our Soldiers lives, but handling the signs and seals of eternity-in-time is not part of their law school training.
The Pastor as Minor Poet,4 as Dr. Craig Barnes of Princeton Theo logical Seminary has called our workis uniquely called, trained, and granted a unique societal role and, thus, a community expectation of helping people dis cover God in the presenting issues of life. That work will remain the same in the future, because human beings will not change.
Our Soldiers will be young. They will age. They will see happy times and sad times. Helping them to claim the divinely bestowed dignity as humans in the midst of it all will be the Chaplain. This will not change. And this unchanging nature of things may be comforting to Chaplains, in the sense that such things are familiar. War Changes EverythingThe disturbing application of Gods revelation through the preacher of Ecclesiastes is that Chaplains will continue to bring Soldiers to God and God to Soldiers as human beings kill each other.
Soldiers exist because the eral George Washington in , also know this and know it, supposedly, in a most theologically visceral way. The Chaplain that answered the call in the past to tend the moral injuries of Soldiers who survived Yorktown, also was there to speak peace to the spirits of Marines in the sweltering heat of Iwo Jima, and support Merchant Mariners as the Navy Chaplain is called to do as they carried troops across the U-boat infested North Atlantic.
Chaplain Col. Donald Rutherford was there to guide Army leadership at Camp Victory, Baghdad, and as one of our Chaplains today will be there in a campaign yet named and a war yet fought. Some things will not change as we anticipate the Chaplain Corps future. Some things will not change because nothing is new under the sun. And Chaplains will be there. Or should this airmation actually be a question? Lo I Tell You a Mystery: Possible Challenges for the Future Chaplaincy Anyone coming upon the question on the future of the Chaplaincy in the armed forces will likely think of the well-publicized challenges facing clergy-in-uniform.