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The Background.

The Crusades, The Vatican; European Jews & Christians

ChristianJewish Relations. The Sources and Their Reliability. The Jewish Sources.

The Violence of A Closer Look. Related Economic Issues.

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Glances Backward and Forward. Full emancipation of Jews throughout Germany came only with the unification of Germany in Even in France itself, emancipation did not end anti-Semitism but merely transformed it.

In this new climate, anti-Semitism became a powerful political tool, as politicians were quick to discover. In the s Karl Lueger won the mayoralty of Vienna—a city of diverse culture and many Jews—with his anti-Semitic campaigns. In both Germany and Austria in the late 19th century, anti-Semitism became an organized movement with its own political parties.

The Russian Empire had restricted Jews to western regions known as the Pale of Settlement ever since the partitions of Poland in the s had brought large numbers of Jews under Russian rule. Another result was a somewhat smaller immigration of Jews to the countries of western Europe, where anti-Semitic agitators exploited xenophobic sentiments against them. In France the Dreyfus Affair became a focal point for anti-Semitism.

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In Alfred Dreyfus , a highly placed Jewish army officer, was falsely accused of treason. His final vindication in was hampered by the French military and the bitterly anti-Semitic French press, and the wrenching controversy over the case left lasting scars on French political life. The widespread economic and political dislocations caused by World War I notably intensified anti-Semitism in Europe after the war. In eastern Europe, anti-Semitism became widespread in Poland, Hungary, and Romania in the interwar period. Article Media.

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